Ludmer, Maurice

Maurice Ludmer Ludmer was born in Manchester in 1926 to a Jewish family, his father being a Salford hairdresser and his mother a teacher of Hebrew.  The family moved to Balsall Heath, Birmingham in 1939, when […]

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Westwood, Jim Councillor

At the age of 23, he was already a President of his branch of the Amalgamated Engineering Union and a member of its District Committee. Westwood was elected a Labour councillor on Rowley Regis Urban […]

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O’Connell, Harry

Harry E O’Connell  The Guyanese ship’s carpenter who organised the black seafarers of Cardiff and Liverpool in the 1930s, reputedly up to 10,000 of them, migrated to Britain in 1910. He founded the Cardiff Coloured […]

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Thompson, Fred

Fred Thompson was born just that – Fred – and was known even to the media of his day as that. The only time he was erroneously called Frederick was when the constabulary charged him. […]


Carritt Michael

Michael John Carritt was born on 3rd January 1906, the eldest son of four brothers and two girls, the brother of Gabriel Carritt (see separate entry). Coming from an academic background, he was educated locally in […]

Encyclopedia of Communist Biographies

Alley, Surat

Surat Alley was the British representative of the All-India Seamen’s Federation (AISF), who led a wave of strikes in 1939 and 1940 in British ports of Indian seafarers, when, despite repeated jailings, mass desertions by […]

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Steer, Bernie

Bernie Steer A measure of how sensitive were docks strikes is shown by the revelations that came when cabinet papers covering 1970 were released under the 30-year rule at the start of 2001. It seems […]